November 9

1873 Birth: Fritz Thyssen: Germany's leading industrial tycoon and a partner of Averell Harriman who will support Hitler financially for 13 years, beginning in October 1923. Thyssen will have a falling-out with Hitler in 1936 and flee to France in 1939. Thyssen will tell the American OSS in 1940 that he has seen Austrian documents proving that Adolf Hitler is the illegitimate grandson of Baron Rothschild of Vienna, and that these documents are responsible for the assassination of Dollfuss in Austria, who had originally compiled them. Thyssen's story is later confirmed by Hansjurgen Koehler, but is now dismissed by most historians. Thyssen will be extradited to Germany by the Vichy government in 1941, and survive several concentration camps. After the war, he will emigrate to Argentina.

1901 Teddy Roosevelt establishes a naval base in the Philippines at Subic Bay, on territory won from Spain during the Spanish-American War.

1904 Birth: Victor Brack: Section chief in the Fuehrer Chancellery responsible for running the 'euthanasia' program. Brack an engineer will be closely associated with Phillip Bouhler. Six hospital killing centers within Germany, equipped with gas chambers and crematoria, will be built up by Brack, and constitute a system that will eliminate thousands of people each month during the early years of the war. Will be sentenced to death at the end of the Doctor's Trials in 1947 and hanged at Landsberg prison on 2 June 1948.

[Annihilation] in gas chambers had been described as the "application of the Brack remedy." Himmler noted the speaking points as "course in east ministry, euthanasia." At the same time, Brack's superior, Reichsleiter Phillip Bouhler had two meetings with Hitler. In all these conversations the same theme was discussed: the transfer of the "well practiced personnel" that had run the gas chambers of "euthanasia" to the extermination camps that would now be built and built up for the murder of all Jews. As Bouhler put it: the transfer of his people "to a definitive solution of the Jewish question.

1906 Roosevelt travels to Panama: On the first foreign trip by a U.S. president, President Theodore Roosevelt departs the United States for Panama aboard the battleship Louisiana.

The visit came three years after Roosevelt gave tacit U.S. military support to the Panamanian revolt against Colombian rule. Panamanian independence allowed American engineers to begin work on the Panama Canal project: an effort to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans with a U.S.-administered canal across the Isthmus of Panama.

1907: From The New York Times:

We wish we had the whole of the statement of the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs. The portion of it summarized in the dispatch from Tokyo is of greater importance than the portion literally cited. The latter consists of general professions of good-will on the part of the Japanese Government and people, and of confidence in the corresponding good-will of the Government and people of The United States. [For the full text of today's proceedings, Click here.]

1914 World War I: Various:

Hitler and his fellow dispatch runners

Gefreiter Adolf Hitler is transferred to Regimental HQ, 16 Bavarian Infantry Regiment, as a regimental orderly (Ordonnanz) and one of eight dispatch runners (Meldegaenger).

Hitler, and his comrade Schmidt had already delivered their first dispatches because of battlefield necessity, and had proved to have an aptitude for it. Dispatch runners are vital in these days before radio communications on the battlefield, and it is very dangerous work. Runners are normally sent out in pairs to increase the probability that at least one would get through with the message. They [usually] carry no arms except small revolvers. The dispatches are sent out sealed in leather dispatch wallets attached to the runners' belts. The dispatches are marked on the outside with either an XXX for "urgent", an XX for "quick," or an X for "in your own time". The losses among dispatch runners are relatively high, and 3 of the initial eight will be dead before the end of November. By December, the regiment will be reduced to one-third combat strength. [For further details: Click here.]

Australian warship Sydney sinks German Emden: On this day in 1914, in the first ever wartime action by an Australian warship, the cruiser Sydney sinks the German raider Emden in the Indian Ocean during the first autumn of World War I.

When World War I broke out in the summer of 1914, the Emden was part of Germany's East Asiatic Squadron, commanded by Maxmilian von Spee. While the rest of the squadron set out for the coast of South America, Spee allowed the ship's commander, Karl von Muller, to detach the ship from the rest of the squadron in order to effectively threaten British commerce where it was vulnerable, in the Indian Ocean. Beginning on September 10, the Emden wreaked havoc on Allied commercial interests in the Indian Ocean, raiding the towns of Madras and Penang and capturing over 20 unarmed merchant vessels. Muller's crew also sank two warships, a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer.

On November 9, the Australian light cruiser Sydney surprised the Emden as the latter ship was raiding a British wireless communications station on the Cocos Islands. The attack killed 134 of the ship's crew members, while Muller and the other survivors were taken prisoner by the British.

1915 World War I (Oct 4, 1915 - Feb 29, 1916): Gefreiter Adolf Hitler's serves with 16 Reserve Infantry Regiment at Fromelles. [For further details, Click here.]

1916 List Regiment: (Oct 9 - Dec 3) Hitler, who had been fighting almost continuously for two years, recovers at a Red Cross hospital in Beelitz, near Berlin. While his wound is serious, he will recover quickly, and will later write Balthaser Brandmayer: "Am suffering from hunger-induced typhus because I cannot eat bread; additionally I am adamantly denied any sort of jam." [For further details, Click here.]

1917 Various:

Russian Revolution
: Lenin forms the world's first Communist government and quickly asks Germany for an armistice.

1917 List Regiment: (November 3, 1917-March 25 1918) Gefreiter Adolf Hitler endures trench warfare north of Ailette with 3 Company, 16 Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. [For further details, Click here.]

1918 Various:

World War I (Oct 15 - Nov 10): Gefreiter Adolf Hitler, blinded in a gas attack near Werwick on Oct 14, recovers in the Prussian Reserve Hospital at Pasewalk near Berlin. The doctors at this army hospital, on the cutting edge of medical treatments for gassed soldiers, provide Hitler with very good care, and his sight slowly and painfully begins to return to him over these few weeks. Hitler falls into a deep depression. After over four years on the front lines, his fighting days are over. In four years of war, the List Regiment has lost 3,754 dead, 8,795 wounded, with 678 taken prisoner. This is somewhat above the average for the German Armed Forces as a whole.

Throughout the length of the war, fifty-nine Jews served in the List Regiment, sixteen of these as officers. Thirty percent of the Jews in the List Regiment were honored for bravery, and seventeen percent were killed in action.[For further details, Click here.]

Collapse of the Second Reich: Chancellor Prince Max von Baden turns over the German government to Frederich Ebert. Ebert soon officially proclaims the new German socialist republic. Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and flees to the Netherlands. Prince Max von Baden's Announcement:

The Kaiser and King has decided to renounce the throne. The Imperial Chancellor will remain in office until the questions connected with the abdication of the Kaiser, the renouncing by the Crown Prince of the throne of the German Empire and of Prussia, and the setting up of a regency have been settled. For the regency he intends to appoint Deputy Ebert as Imperial Chancellor, and he proposes that a bill shall be brought in for the establishment of a law providing for the immediate promulgation of general suffrage and for a constitutional German National Assembly, which will settle finally the future form of government of the German Nation and of those peoples which might be desirous of coming within the empire.

Letter from Kaiser Wilhelm II to Crown Prince Wilhelm:

My Dear Boy: After the Court Chamberlain had informed me that he could no longer guarantee my safety at Main Headquarters, and that the troops also were no longer trustworthy, I resolved after a severe mental struggle to leave the army, which has collapsed, and go to Holland. I advise you to stick to your post until the conclusion of the armistice. In Berlin two Governments, under the leadership of Ebert and Liebknecht, are fighting against each other. I hope to see you again in happier times. Your faithful and deeply affected father, WILHELM.

Volkishness: In the evening, Thule Grandmaster Sebottendorff, delivers an oration to the Thule Society in Munich:

Yesterday we experienced the collapse of everything which was familiar, dear and valuable to us. In the place of our princes of Germanic blood rules our deadly enemy: Judah. What will come of this chaos, we do not know yet. But we can guess. A time will come of struggle, the most bitter need, a time of danger . . . . As long as I hold the iron hammer (a reference to his Master's hammer), I am determined to pledge the Thule to this struggle. Our Order is a Germanic Order, loyalty is also Germanic. Our god is Walvater, his rune is the Ar-rune. And the trinity: Wotan, Wili, We is the unity of the trinity. The Ar-rune signifies 'Aryan,' primal fire, the sun and the eagle. And the eagle is the symbol of the 'Aryans.' In order to depict the eagle's capacity for self immolation by fire, it is colored red. From today on our new symbol is the red eagle, which warns us that we must die in order to live." Sebottendorff continues by exhorting the Thule members to fight "until the swastika rises victoriously out of the icy darkness" and closes his speech with a racist-theosophical poem by Philipp Stauff. (THP)

1923 The Munich Putsch: Hitler, with the backing of General Ludendorff, attempts to take over the Bavarian government by force of arms. Hitler claims that his main purpose is to squash a plot by Bavarian separatist to secede from Germany.

Around eleven o'clock this morning, approximately three thousand storm troopers follow Hitler and Ludendorff on their way to the center of Munich. They meet up with a group of police who let them pass after having been given an ultimatum by Goering that if they are not allowed to pass, hostages will be shot. Then the column arrives at the narrow Residenzstrasse.

At the other end of the street, a large group of police wait. Hitler is in the front with his left arm linked with the right arm of Scheubner-Richter. Graf shouts to the police to inform them that Ludendorff is present. Then a shot rings out. No one is sure which side fires the first shot. Scheubner-Richter is one of the first to be hit. Mortally wounded and with his arm linked with Hitler, Hitler goes down too. The fall dislocates Hitler's shoulder. The shooting lasts approximately sixty seconds. Ludendorff keeps walking. As everyone else falls to the ground or seeks cover, Ludendorff defiantly marches straight ahead. He and his adjutant, Major Streck, march right through the line of police. He is very angry that no one had followed him and is soon arrested by the police.

Goering had been wounded in the groin. After some initial first aid by two helpful Jewish women, he is spirited off and smuggled into Austria. He will remain in exile for years, fighting a recurring infection from the wounds of this day and beginning the cycle of heroin addiction that would plague his life. Hess also flees to Austria. Roehm surrenders. Hitler, though not really wounded, is one of the first to leave, spirited off by his compatriots. Taken to the home of the Hanfstaengls, he is hysterical and depressed, contemplating suicide. Two days later, Hitler is arrested. According to different reports, between fourteen and sixteen Nazis and three policemen die during the Putsch.

From the series 'SA Battle Experiences Which We Will Never Forget' published in Der SA-Mann:

We stayed overnight in the Colosseum (that means Nuremberg). Then in the morning we found out what had happened in Munich. 'Now a revolution will also be made in Nuremberg', we said. All of a sudden the police came from the Maxtor police station and told us that we should go home, that the Putsch in Munich had failed. We did not believe that and we did not go home. Then came the State Police with fixed bayonets and drove us out of the hall. One of us then shouted: 'Let's go to the Cafe Habsburg!' By the time we arrived, however, the police again had everything surrounded. Some shouted then, 'The Jewish place will be stormed . . . . Out with the Jews!'. Then the police started to beat us up. Then we divided into small groups and roamed through the town, and wherever we caught a Red or a Jew we knew, blows ensued.

Then in the evening we marched, although the police had forbidden it, to a meeting in Furth. In the Hornschuch promenade the police again attempted to stop us. It was all the same to us. In the next moment we attacked the police in our anger so that they were forced to flee. We marched on to Geissmann Hall. There again they tried to stop us. But the Landsturm, which was also there, attacked the policemen like persons possessed and drove them from the streets. After the meeting we dissolved and went to the edge of town. From there we marched in close column back to Nuremberg. In Willstrasse, at the Plarrer, the police came again. We simply shoved them aside. They did not trust themselves to attack, for that would have meant a blood bath. We decided beforehand not to take anything from anyone.

In Furth, too, they had already noticed that we were up to no good. A large mass of people accompanied us on the march. We marched with unrolled flags and sang so that the streets resounded: Comrade reach me your hand; we want to stand together; even though they have false impressions, the spirit must not die; swastika on the steel helmet, black-white-red armband; we are known as Storm Troop (SA) Hitler!"

1925 German NSDAP officially forms the SS (Schutzstaffel—Protection Squad):

Adolf Hitler founded the Schutzstaffel (SS) in April of 1925, as a group of personal bodyguards. As time went on, this small band of bodyguards grew from 300 members in 1925 to 50,000 in 1933 when Hitler took office. The man responsible for this growth was Heinrich Himmler, who commanded the SS from 1929 until its disintegration in 1945. Between 1934 and 1936, the SS gained control of Germany's police forces and expanded their responsibilities. Because of these new responsibilities, the SS divided into two sub-units: the Allgemeine-SS (General SS), and the Waffen-SS (Armed SS). Combined, these two organizations consisted of over 250,000 troops by 1939.

The General SS dealt with local police matters and with "racial matters." The main component of the General SS was the Reichssicherheitshauptamt ("RSHA," Reich Security Central Office in German). The RSHA itself was divided into four sub-groups, including the well-known Gestapo, headed by Heinrich Mueller. The RSHA also dealt with foreign espionage and counterintelligence.

The Armed SS consisted of three main groups. The first was the Leibstandarte, Hitler's personal bodyguard. The second was the Totenkopfverbaende (Death's-Head Battalions), which was in charge of the death and concentration camps. The third group was the Verfuegungstruppen (Disposition Troops), an elite combat unit known for its extreme fighting tactics, which was mixed in with Germany's regular army. Because of the distasteful nature of their duties, members of the SS were schooled for many years in racial hatred, and were encouraged to harden their hearts to human suffering.

Unlike the SA ("Sturmabtelung," German for Assault Division, also known as "Brownshirts), who were considered to be a separate paramilitary organization working for the good of the State, the SS was under Hitler's total control. Easily recognizable by the lightning-shaped "S" insignia on their black uniforms, they soon became known as the purest of all Germans. To facilitate this, Himmler demanded that each officer prove the racial history of his family dating back to 1700. As the SS grew and became more complex, it matured into the spine of the Nazi regime.

1929 IG Farben and Standard Oil sign a cartel agreement that has two objectives: (1) The cartel agreement granted Standard Oil one-half of all rights to the hydrogenation process (producing gasoline from coal, developed by Farben) in all countries except Germany. (2) Standard and Farben agreed "never to compete with each other in the fields of chemistry and petroleum products. In the future, if Standard Oil wished to enter the broad field of industrial chemicals or drugs, it would do so only as a partner of Farben. Farben in turn, agreed never to enter the field of petroleum except as a joint venture with Standard." (See: How the Bush family made its fortune from the Nazis) (THP)

1930 Weimar: Wreaths: The Gauleiter (NSDAP regional party leader) of the state of Hesse seeks permission to lay wreaths on this date at the graves of German soldiers killed in WWI and buried in Catholic cemeteries. His request is denied by the Church on the ground that political parties whose ultimate outlook on life conflicts with Church doctrine cannot be allowed to hold such ceremonies on Catholic soil. (THP)

1932 Various:

Leon Nicole—leader of the Bolsheviks in Switzerland—and his assistant, a Russian Jew named Dicker, instigate an uprising that results in the deaths of 13 people. More than a hundred are injured.

Death: Svetlana Alliluyeva: Stalin's second wife: Officially ruled as peritonitis resulting from a burst appendix; various other theories are that the cause is suicide, or murder on the orders of Stalin, or that she is killed by Stalin himself.

1933 A huge Blutzeuge celebration is held in Munich: At midday, the march from the Buergerbraukeller over the Ludwig Bridge to the Feldherrnhalle--which had ended so badly in 1923--is reenacted. Hitler and the surviving members of the original march, including the Freikorps fighters (without General Ludendorff) silently trod the same fateful path through the streets of Munich. The Carillon in the city hall played the Horst Wessel Song when the columns reached the Marienplatz. A small bronze memorial honoring the dead of 1923 is unveiled after a moving speech by Hitler, who now plans to make a permanent annual event of this commemoration ceremony. On the evening of every November 9th, SS recruits will gather and, at Hitler's orders, pledge their oath before the memorial to be willing at all times to give their blood and their lives for him. (THP)

1934 Hitler: instead of reenacting the march to the Feldherrnhalle, delivers a speech to the newest Party members during their oath ceremony. Most have just recently left the ranks of the Hitler Youth. The speech is held in the same square where eleven years earlier the Munich police had fired upon Hitler and his followers during the 1923 putsch. "And you will have to be fighters! For there are still many, many opponents of our movement in Germany. They do not want Germany to be strong. They do not want our Volk to be united. They do not want our Volk to defend its honor. They do not want our Volk to be free. They may not want it, but we want it, and our will WILL defeat them.

1935 China: Japanese troops invade Shanghai.

1938 Holocaust: Hitler authorizes Hermann Goering to deal with all Jewish political affairs. Hitler tells Goering that he is interested in sending German Jews to Madagascar and that he will make an initiative to the Western powers.

Nazis launch Kristallnacht: [In] an event that would foreshadow the Holocaust, German Nazis launch a campaign of terror against Jewish people and their homes and businesses in Germany and Austria.

The violence, which continued through November 10 and was later dubbed "Kristallnacht," or "Night of Broken Glass," after the countless smashed windows of Jewish-owned establishments, left approximately 100 Jews dead, 7,500 Jewish businesses damaged and hundreds of synagogues, homes, schools and graveyards vandalized. An estimated 30,000 Jewish men were arrested, many of whom were then sent to concentration camps for several months; they were released when they promised to leave Germany. Kristallnacht represented a dramatic escalation of the campaign started by Adolf Hitler in 1933 when he became chancellor to purge Germany of its Jewish population.

The Nazis used the murder of a low-level German diplomat in Paris by a 17-year-old Polish Jew as an excuse to carry out the Kristallnacht attacks. On November 7, 1938, Ernst vom Rath was shot outside the German embassy by Herschel Grynszpan, who wanted revenge for his parents' sudden deportation from Germany to Poland, along with tens of thousands of other Polish Jews. Following vom Rath's death, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels ordered German storm troopers to carry out violent riots disguised as "spontaneous demonstrations" against Jewish citizens. Local police and fire departments were told not to interfere. In the face of all the devastation, some Jews, including entire families, committed suicide.

In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, the Nazis blamed the Jews and fined them 1 billion marks (or $400 million in 1938 dollars) for vom Rath's death. As repayment, the government seized Jewish property and kept insurance money owed to Jewish people. In its quest to create a master Aryan race, the Nazi government enacted further discriminatory policies that essentially excluded Jews from all aspects of public life.

Over 100,000 Jews fled Germany for other countries after Kristallnacht. The international community was outraged by the violent events of November 9 and 10. Some countries broke off diplomatic relations in protest, but the Nazis suffered no serious consequences, leading them to believe they could get away with the mass murder that was the Holocaust, in which an estimated 6 million European Jews died.

1939 World War II: Various:

Venlow Incident: Two British spies (Captain Sigismund Payne Best and Major Richard H. Stevens) are arrested for espionage at Venlo on the Dutch-German border by the Germans, who capture a list of British agents and use it to make numerous arrests of British agents in Czechoslovakia and other occupied countries.

This incident also subsequently made the British very suspicious of any approach from any kind of professed German anti-Hitler resistance. Hitler used it as an excuse to claim that The Netherlands was involved with Britain and had violated its own neutrality. Best and Stevens remained imprisoned until the end of the war.

Blutzeuge: On Hitler's instructions, Goebbels cancels the Day of National Solidarity (Blutzeuge) in Munich, saying, "In these times, it is too dangerous." (THP)

1940 Various:

Death: Neville Chamberlain—after a sudden illness. "You can imagine what a bitter blow it is to me that all my long struggle to win peace has failed. Yet I cannot believe that there is anything more, or anything different, that I could have done."

Blutzeuge: According to Goebbel's diary, Hitler's annual speech on the Day of National Solidarity (Blutzeuge) is "directed exclusively on the domestic population and finds little support."

World War II: North Africa: Start of a counter-offensive by the British 8th Army against Italian forces in Egypt. [See: The Mediterranean Strategy?]

1941 World War II: Various:

Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels speaks on the war situation:

Only during the course of this war has it become clear how sick postwar Europe was, and what comprehensive measures it needed, needs, and will need, to return it to health. Just as a harmless cold sometimes allows a series of other illnesses to take hold, an event not of particular significance in itself can plunge a whole region of the world into confusion. Those who do not understand politics, which is the process of history, sometimes believe that the occasion is the cause of great human catastrophes and national transformations. The shot fired in Sarajevo, for example, occasioned the World War, but did not cause it. Europe was ready for such a war, and had been for some years. Only Germany's leadership did not want to see the danger, and thus found itself in a war that it could have fought more effectively at an earlier time, but instead faced it at the worst possible time. When one knows that a pitiless enemy is seeking the best position from which to shoot, one is well advised to shoot first.

From 'Transportation of Russian Prisoners of War, destined for Execution:

The commandants of the concentration camps are complaining that 5 to 10 percent of the Soviet Russians destined for execution are arriving in the camps dead or half dead. Therefore the impression has arisen that the Stalags are getting rid of such prisoners in this way. It was particularly noted that when marching, for example, from the railroad station to the camp a rather large number of PW's collapsed on the way from exhaustion, either dead or half dead, and had to be picked up by a truck following the convoy. It cannot be prevented that the German people take notice of these occurrences. Even if the transportation to the camps is generally taken care of by the Wehrmacht, the population will attribute this situation to the SS. In order to prevent, if possible, similar occurrences in the future, I therefore order that, effective from today on, Soviet Russians declared definitely suspect and obviously marked by death (for example with hunger-typhus) and therefore not able to withstand the exertions of even a short march on foot shall in the future, as a matter of basic principle, be excluded from the transport into the concentration camps for execution.

1942 Various:

World War II: Allen Dulles arrives in Bern, Switzerland, on the last train from Vichy France, only hours before the Germans occupy southern France and cut the rail link. Ostensibly taking up a post as assistant to the American minister in Bern, Dulles's real job is to organize the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Mission in Switzerland. He soon begins setting up a professional intelligence outpost on Germany's southern border. Dulles had already met Eduard Schulte 15 years earlier at Sullivan and Cromwell, Dulles law firm, which sometimes represented Giesche's partner Anaconda Copper.

Hitler attends Blutzeuge (Day of National Memory) ceremonies in Munich.

World War II: North Africa: German paratroops are landed in Tunisia to forestall an invasion by the Allies.

1944 World War II: German forces evacuate the Moerdijk bridgehead across the Meuse river.

1949 East Germany: Parliament in Berlin unanimously passes a law restoring full citizenship rights to ex-Nazis and army officers. From now on any Russian Zone Nazi - unless he has been convicted of war crimes - can vote, hold public office, and pursue almost any profession. East German Deputy Premier Walter Ulbricht explaining the civil rights law for Nazis and militarists, says that "antifascist forces were sufficiently consolidated," and besides, "many have repented." (International Herald Tribune, Nov. 10, 1949, Nov. 10 1999.)

1952 Death: Chaim Weizmann: former head of the international Zionist movement and the first president of the newly formed state of Israel, in Rehovot, Israel.

1965 Great Northeast Power Outage: The "Great Northeast Power Outage" blacks-out New York City, several states in the Northeast, and parts of Canada after a series of mysterious power failures that last up to 13 1/2 hours. The biggest electricity grid failure in US (at the time) history causes a 13-hour blackout in northeast America and parts of Canada.

The power lines from Niagra Falls to New York City were operating near their maximum capacity. At about 5:15 pm, a transmission line relay failed. Now there was insufficient line capacity for New York City. New England and New York are inter-connected on a power grid, and the power that had been flowing toward New York City had to go elswhere, instantly. Not prepared to handle this overload, generator operators shut down to protect their equipment. Almost the entire grid failed. In the subways of New York, 800,000 people were trapped. Overall, some 80,000 square miles, and 25 million people were affected."

Note: Several Nazi groups in Germany later claim responsibility and say that their disruption of electricity to New York had been a symbolic demonstration of their power. "We wanted to show the Jews of New York just how quickly we could put them back in the Dark Ages," one elderly Nazi joked in 1992.

1970 Death: General Charles De Gaulle at age 79:

Despite objections from Britain and the USA, De Gaulle's Provisional Government was recognized by Czechoslovakia, Poland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia and Norway. On 13th July, 1944, the governments of Britain and the USA also agreed that de Gaulle could help administer the liberated portions of France.

De Gaulle reached France from Algiers on 20th August 1944. De Gaulle and his 2nd Armoured Division was allowed to join the USA Army when it entered Paris on 25th August. At a public speech later that day he announced that the French Forces of the Interior (FFI) would be integrated into the French Army and the militia would be dissolved. He also offered posts in his government to leaders of the resistance . . . . 

De Gaulle was upset by not being invited to the Yalta Conference but he was allowed to represent France as one of the four countries to sign the final instrument of surrender with Germany. France was also given one of the four occupation zones in Germany.

1989 Berlin: Without warning, East German border guards open the gates to West Berlin and the Berlin Wall suddenly comes down. The swiftness of its fall stuns the world and many find it suspicious that this remarkable event coincides with the date of Adolf Hitler's most "sacred" Nazi holiday: Gedenktag fuer die Gefallenen der Nazi Bewegung. Note: November 9 is a date connected with the National Socialist movement from its very beginning and with Hitler as far back as World War I.

1999 Tenth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall: In Berlin, more than 100,000 people celebrate at the Brandenburg gate. Neo-Nazis and violent nationalists avoid the celebration. No skinheads or violent reactionaries create any disruptions in Berlin, and the celebration is peaceful and well-organized. There are, however, several desecrations and Neo-Nazi incidents in a number of smaller cities. Many Neo-Nazis, both in Europe and America believe this date marks a day of very special importance (Schicksalstag) to their movement.

Edited by Levi Bookin (Copy editor)

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