1852: The only one of Emperor Kōmei's children to live past the age of two, Emperor Meiji (Meiji-tennō), is born.
1853: The USS Constitution, the flagship of the African Squadron under the command of Commodore Isaac Mayo, captures the American slaver H. N. Gambrill.
1801 Birth: Leopold III: King of the Belgians:
[His] actions as commander in chief of the Belgian army during the German conquest of Belgium (1940) in World War II aroused opposition to his rule, eventually leading to his abdication in 1951.
The son of Albert I and his consort Elisabeth of Bavaria, Leopold served as a private soldier during the final campaign of World War I. . . . Leopold became king of the Belgians following his father’s death on February 17, 1934. Favouring an independent foreign policy, but not strict neutrality, he withdrew Belgium from its defensive alliance with France and from the Pact of Locarno--a peace agreement among Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, and Great Britain--after German occupation of the Rhineland (1936). Determined to resist aggression with help from Britain and France, he sponsored construction of a fortified defense line from Antwerp to Namur, facing Germany.
After the outbreak of World War II, Leopold assumed supreme command of the Belgian army. In May 1940, as the Allies undertook the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of troops from the French seaport of Dunkirk, Belgian forces at the Leie (Lys) River in Belgium battled the advancing Germans. Leopold was forced to surrender his encircled forces on May 28. The Belgian government’s repudiation of his decision to remain with his troops, rather than join the London government in exile, laid the foundation for the postwar conflict over his claim to the throne. Leopold was held prisoner by the Germans at his royal chateau near Brussels until 1944 and then in Austria to the end of the war. His letter to Adolf Hitler in 1942 is credited with saving an estimated 500,000 Belgian women and children from deportation to munitions factories in Germany. . . .
After his brother Charles was appointed regent in 1944, Leopold remained in Switzerland (1945–50), awaiting resolution of the “royal question,” the controversy over his pending return to the throne. In a plebiscite held March 12, 1950, nearly 58 percent of the voters favoured the king’s return, largely reflecting Catholic Fleming support. But unrest fomented by Liberal, Socialist, and Walloon opposition led Leopold to renounce his sovereignty on August 11, 1950, in favour of his son Baudouin, who became king the following year. Leopold and the Princesse de Rethy continued to live in Laeken, however, the traditional home of Belgian kings, until his son’s marriage in 1960. Critics of Leopold felt that his residence in Laeken gave him too much influence over King Baudouin. [For further information, click here.]
List Regiment (Oct 29-31):
Infantry Recruit Adolf Hitler, of 1st Company, 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry, is promoted to "Gefreiter," effective from the first day of November. Despite receiving many awards for bravery, this is the only promotion in rank Hitler will receive during four years of service. H
"Gefreiter" does not mean Corporal or Lance-Corporal, as is often claimed. The closest equivalent in the US military is that of a Private E-2 pay grade; in the UK, the two lowest American ranks are both equivalent to Private. Hitler will hold this rank for the duration. Hitler's regimental comrade, Michel Schlehuber, a Social Democrat and union member for 35 years, will testify in 1932:
I have known Hitler since the departure for the front of the Bavarian 16th RIR. I came to know Hitler as a good soldier and faultless comrade. I never saw Hitler attempt to avoid any duty or danger. I was part of the division from first to last, and never heard anything bad about Hitler, then or afterwards. I was astonished when I later read unfavorable things about Hitler's service as a soldier in the newspapers. I disagree entirely with Hitler on political matters, and give this testimony only because I highly respect Hitler as a war comrade. [For further details, Click here.]
1915 World War I (Oct 4, 1915 - Feb 29, 1916): Gefreiter Adolf Hitler's serves with 16 Reserve Infantry Regiment at Fromelles. [For further details, Click here.]1916 World War I: Various:
Mackensen--commander of the German-reinforced Bulgarian Danube Army--crosses the Danube after driving north through the Dobruja. List Regiment
1917 World War I Various:
List Regiment: (October 17-Nov 3) Dispatch Runner Gefreiter Adolf Hitler and the List Regiment hold down a series of trenches in front of Laon near the Chemin des Dames. While there is "no danger of being taken by surprise, for the canal lay as a natural obstacle between the lines of trenches". But it is still necessary to "build a robust line [since] the highly desired town of Laon lay to our rear. . . .In the first few weeks, we often suffered strong enemy fire. This eased significantly however, in weight as in violence, in December so that one may speak of enjoying Christmas in a quiet sector. [For further details, Click here.]
Three American soldiers are killed in action: They are the first official American casualties in World War I. By the end of the war 49,000 will be killed in action and another 230,000 wounded. Disease will take a greater toll than bullets, claiming 57,000 men. The German naval base at Kiel revolts:
1918 World War I: Various:
The German naval base at Kiel revolts:
The slogan Frieden und Brot (peace and bread) was raised showing that the sailors and workers demanded not only the release of the imprisoned but also the end of the war and the improvement of food provisions. Eventually the people supported Artelt's call to free the prisoners and they moved to the direction of the military prison. Shortly before the sub Lieutenant Steinh�user, who had to stop the demonstrators, ordered his patrol to give warning shots and then to shoot directly into the demonstration. Thereby seven people were killed and 29 severely injured. Also some demonstrators opened fire. [For further details, Click here.]Trieste is seized by an Allied naval expedition in the Gulf of Venice.
Gefreiter Adolf Hitler—blinded in a gas attack near Werwick on Oct 14—recovers in the Prussian Reserve Hospital at Pasewalk near Berlin. The doctors at this army hospital, on the cutting edge of medical treatments for gassed soldiers, provide Hitler with very good care, and his sight slowly and painfully begins to return to him over these few weeks. Hitler falls into a deep depression. After over four years on the front lines, his fighting days are over. In four years of war, the List Regiment has lost 3,754 dead, 8,795 wounded, with 678 taken prisoner. This is somewhat above the average for the German Armed Forces as a whole.
Throughout the length of the war, fifty-nine Jews served in the List Regiment, sixteen of these as officers. Thirty percent of the Jews in the List Regiment were honored for bravery, and seventeen percent were killed in action.[For further details, Click here.]1921 Weimar: All capital stock in the "Munchener Beobachter" ("Voelkischer Beobachter") is transferred to Adolf Hitler.
Lanz became a monk in the cistercian order in 1893, assuming the name Georg and living in the Heiligenkreuz monastery. In 1894, he claimed to have been "enlightened" after finding the tombstone of a knight templar, and began developing his theories of "blue-blond aryanism" and "lower races". He left the monastery in 1899; although Lanz claimed that this was due to "growing nervousness", the official documents recorded "carnal love" as the reason, something that may have contributed to his later anti-feminism.
In 1904, he published his book "Theozoologie" ("theozoology") in which he advocated sterilization of the sick and the "lower races" as well as forced labour for "castrated chandals", and glorified the "aryan race" as "Gottmenschen" ("god men"). Lanz justified his neognostic racial ideology by attempting to give it a biblical foundation; according to him, Eve, which he described as initially being divine, involved herself with a demon and gave birth to the "lower races" in the process. Furthermore, he claimed that this led to blonde women being attracted primarily to "dark men", something that only could be stopped by "racial demixing" so that the "aryan-christian master humans" could "once again rule the dark-skinned beastmen." [For further details, Click here.]
Holocaust: Himmler and his staff visit Wewelsburg castle near Paderborn in Westphalia. Himmler decides to acquire it for the SS that same evening. (THP)
Heinrich Himmler signed a 100-mark 100-year lease with the Paderborn district, initially intending to renovate and re-design the castle as a school for Nazi leadership (the so-called SS "Fuehrerkorps"). Its official name was "SS-Schule Haus Wewelsburg" (SS-School House Wewelsburg). Schoolings never occurred but SS-scientists practised "germanic purpose research." [For further details, Click here.]Church and Reich: Archbishop Groeber and Bishop Berning report that the government is willing to exempt the directors of Catholic institutions from the duty of applying for the sterilization of patients under their care.
Greece:A plebiscite returns George II, who had been in exile since 1923, to the throne.
In Greece between 1924 and 1935 there were 23 changes of government, a dictatorship and 13 coups. General Georgios Kondylis, a former Venizelist, overthrew the government in October 1935 and appointed himself Prime Minister. He then arranged a plebiscite both to approve his government and to bring an end to the Republic. On November 3, 1935, over 95% of the reported votes supported restoration of the monarchy. The balloting was not secret, and participation was compulsory. As Time magazine described it at the time, "A voter one could drop into the ballot box a blue vote for George II and please General George Kondylis... or one could cast a red ballot for the Republic and get roughed up." [For further details, Click here.]
France: Leon Blum forms the French Popular Front government:
Blum was elected as Deputy for Narbonne in 1929, and was re-elected in 1932 and 1936. Circumstances changed in 1934, when the rise of Adolf Hitler and fascist riots in Paris caused Stalin and the French Communists to change their policy. In 1935 all the parties of left and centre formed the Popular Front, which at the elections of June 1936 won a sweeping victory. Blum became the first socialist and the first Jew to be Prime Minister of France. As such he was an object of particular hatred to the Catholic and anti-Semitic right. In one particularly notable incident, while Prime Minister, he was dragged from a car and almost beaten to death by a group of anti-Semites and royalists. The industrial workers responded to the election of the Popular Front government by occupying their factories, confident that "the revolution" was imminent. For Blum, as a Marxist, this was an agonising moment. He did not believe that socialism could be achieved by parliamentary means. But he could not encourage the workers to launch an attempt at a revolution: he knew that the army would intervene and the workers would be massacred as they had been at the Paris Commune in 1871. He persuaded the workers to accept pay rises and go back to work."1936 Various:
President Roosevelt is re-elected in a landslide over Republican challenger Alfred M. 'Alf' Landon. "Landon accused FDR of acquiring so much power that he was subverting the Constitution." [For further details, Click here.]
Reich labor leader Robert Ley speaks:
The second miracle: This people have received leadership! You may not understand me, you may ask: Did not the people always have leadership? Certainly there have always been states and forms of government, and types of societies and types of economies. However, a true people's leadership is wholly new. Our people lacked it in the past two thousand years. Our people did establish governments, and had Kaisers, kings, counts, republics, and other forms of government. Our people had every sort of economic system. Occupations, classes and such came and went. But a popular leadership, the feeling of the individual that someone cares for me, is personally concerned about me, that is unique. The feeling of the individual, whether high or low, that other people are responsible for them, that their problems are the problems of the leadership, this is unique. That is why we love Adolf Hitler. [For the full text, Click here.]1937 Holocaust: The Danzig Senate isolates Jewish merchants and seizes their bank deposits, charging them with tax evasion. (THP)
Holocaust: Hitler suggests using The Protocols of the Elders of Zion abroad to demonstrate that the true instigators of the war are Jews and Freemasons. (THP)
To what extent the whole existence of this people is based on a continuous lie is shown incomparably by the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, so infinitely hated by the Jews. They are based on a forgery, the Frankfurter Zeitung moans and screams once every week: the best proof that they are authentic. What many Jews may do unconsciously is here consciously exposed. And that is what matters. It is completely indifferent from what Jewish brain these disclosures originate; the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims. The best criticism applied to them, however, is reality. Anyone who examines the historical development of the last hundred years from the standpoint of this book will at once understand the screaming of the Jewish press. For once this book has become the common property of a people, the Jewish menace may be considered as broken. [For the full text, Click here.]Poland: The Gestapo executes 96 Polish schoolteachers in their school and a nearby woods near Rypin.
Units of Panzergruppe 2 (Guderian) of Heeresgruppe Mitte (von Bock) capture Kursk.
War Department to Hawaiian Department: "Subject: Information Received from the Orient. Summary of Information:
The following information received from the Orient, dated August 26, 1941, is considered reliable:
1. Mr. HIROTA, a presiding officer at directors' meeting of the Black Dragon Society, told of an order issued by War Minister TOJO (now Premier) 'to complete full preparation to meet any emergency with the United States in the Pacific. All guns to be to be mounted in the islands of the Pacific under Japanese mandate. The full preparation to be completed by November.'
2. HIROTA and others are said to have stated: 'War with United States would best begin in December or in February.'
3. Very soon,' they say, 'the cabinet will be changed. The new Cabinet would likely start war within sixty days.' G-2 Note: Full name of individual mentioned above is KOKI HIROTA, who is reported to be a member of the House of Peers, former Premier of Japan and director of the Bureau of Intelligence, US Section. [For further details: Click here.]
An attempt to correct the error of 1940 may be found in the efforts to adjust Japanese relations with the United States and thereby to lead the way to conclusion of peace with China, made by Prince Konoye and promised by the Tojo Cabinet. If this attempt fails, and if success continues to favor German arms, a final, closer Axis alignment may be expected.[See: Did FDR Have Foreknowledge of Pearl Harbor?]
North Africa:After standing firm for more than a week, Rommel's German and Italian forces begin a withdrawal from El Alamein and begin heading back for Libya. Rejecting out of hand Field Marshal Rommel's proposal to withdraw the Afrikakorps, now down to about 40 tanks, to the Fuka line, Hitler orders him to stand and fight.
In an interview with American journalists, Stalin describes US military aid as of little effect. USSR:
[See: Worst Dictator of Modern Times: Hitler or Stalin?]
1943 World War II: Various
USSR:Start of a Soviet offensive north of Kiev. "...the 4th Panzer Army awoke to a massive Soviet bombardment. The German forces screening the bridgehead were smashed, and Kiev was liberated in short order. 1st Ukrainian Front's objectives were to drive quickly westwards." [For further details, Click here.]
At Majdanek, 18,000 prisoners are murdered in a single day of slaughter, called the "harvest festival" by the SS. (THP)
1944 World War II: Various
Finland: 20 Gebirgsarmee evacuates the mineral-rich Petsamo region in northern Finland.
Slovakia:Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Jan Golian and Rudolf Viest are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.
1948 USA: Newspaper mistakenly declares Dewey president:
On this day in 1948, the Chicago Tribune jumps the gun and mistakenly declares New York Governor Thomas Dewey the winner of his presidential race with incumbent Harry S. Truman in a front-page headline: "Dewey Defeats Truman."
In a now famous photograph snapped in the early morning hours after the election, a beaming and bemused Truman is shown holding aloft the Chicago Tribune issue that had wrongly predicted his political downfall. Truman defeated Dewey by 114 electoral votes. [For further information, click here.] 1957 Various:
The Soviets launch Sputnik II, the world's second artificial satellite and the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. With a payload exceeding 1,120 pounds, it becomes obvious to the world that the Soviets have achieved the capability to let ICBM warheads fall substantially wherever they wished.
[See: Wunderwaffen: Hitler's Deception and the History of Rocketry.]
Death: Wilhelm Reich: Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, and a member of Sigmund Freud's inner circle. Reich was living in Germany when Hitler came to power. As a Jew and a communist, he realized he was in danger and hastily emigrated to Scandinavia, before moving to the United States in 1939.
1979 USA: Five members of the U.S. Communist Workers Party are shot and killed by members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party while in a protest in Greensboro, North Carolina. [For further information, click here]
1989: After weeks of demonstrations and the flight to the West of thousands, East German leader Egon Krenz pledges reforms and dismisses five members of his politburo.
Edited by Levi Bookin (Copy editor) Disclaimer: This site includes diverse and controversial materials--such as excerpts from the writings of racists and anti-Semites--so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and anti-Semitic discourse. It is our sincere belief that only the informed citizen can prevail over the ignorance of Racialist "thought." Far from approving these writings, this site condemns racism in all of its forms and manifestations.
Fair Use Notice: This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of historical, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, environmental, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
Please Note: The list-owner and the moderator of 3rdReichStudies are not responsible for, and do not necessarily approve of, the random ads placed on our pages by our web server. They are the unfortunate price one pays for a 'free' website.